Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Many of these changes were reproduced by the transfer of gut microbiota from antibiotic-treated donors to germ-free or germ-depleted mice. These physiological changes closely correlated with changes in serum bile acids and levels of the antiinflammatory bile acid receptor Takeda G protein–coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and were partially recapitulated by treatment with a TGR5 agonist. In contrast, antibiotic treatment of HFD-fed, obesity-resistant 129S1 and obesity-prone 129S6 mice did not improve metabolism, despite changes in microbiota and bile acids. These mice also failed to show a reduction in inflammatory gene expression in response to the TGR5 agonist. Thus, changes in bile acid and inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism driven by an HFD can be modified by antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota; however, these effects depend on important interactions with the host’s genetic background and inflammatory potential.
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C. Ronald Kahn
Radiotherapy causes dose-limiting toxicity and long-term complications in rapidly renewing tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no FDA-approved agent for the prevention or treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we have shown that PD 0332991 (PD), an FDA-approved selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), prevents radiation-induced lethal intestinal injury in mice. Treating mice with PD or a structurally distinct CDK4/6 inhibitor prior to radiation blocked proliferation and crypt apoptosis and improved crypt regeneration. PD treatment also enhanced LGR5+ stem cell survival and regeneration after radiation. PD was an on-target inhibitor of RB phosphorylation and blocked G1/S transition in the intestinal crypts. PD treatment strongly but reversibly inhibited radiation-induced p53 activation, which blocked p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis–dependent (PUMA-dependent) apoptosis without affecting p21-dependent suppression of DNA damage accumulation, with a repair bias toward nonhomologous end joining. Further, deletion of
Liang Wei, Brian J. Leibowitz, Xinwei Wang, Michael Epperly, Joel Greenberger, Lin Zhang, Jian Yu
EGFR signaling regulates macrophage function, but its role in bacterial infection has not been investigated. Here, we assessed the role of macrophage EGFR signaling during infection with
Dana M. Hardbower, Kshipra Singh, Mohammad Asim, Thomas G. Verriere, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Daniel P. Barry, Margaret M. Allaman, M. Kay Washington, Richard M. Peek Jr., M. Blanca Piazuelo, Keith T. Wilson
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by
Kara Gross Margolis, Zhishan Li, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, George M. Anderson, Isaac Snyder, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Randy D. Blakely, Michael D. Gershon
Although defects in intestinal barrier function are a key pathogenic factor in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), the molecular pathways driving disease-specific alterations of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are largely unknown. Here, we addressed this issue by characterizing the transcriptome of IECs from IBD patients using a genome-wide approach. We observed disease-specific alterations in IECs with markedly impaired Rho-A signaling in active IBD patients. Localization of epithelial Rho-A was shifted to the cytosol in IBDs, and inflammation was associated with suppressed Rho-A activation due to reduced expression of the Rho-A prenylation enzyme geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I). Functionally, we found that mice with conditional loss of
Rocío López-Posadas, Christoph Becker, Claudia Günther, Stefan Tenzer, Kerstin Amann, Ulrike Billmeier, Raja Atreya, Gionata Fiorino, Stefania Vetrano, Silvio Danese, Arif B. Ekici, Stefan Wirtz, Veronika Thonn, Alastair J.M. Watson, Cord Brakebusch, Martin Bergö, Markus F. Neurath, Imke Atreya
The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (
Charlotte E. Egan, Chhinder P. Sodhi, Misty Good, Joyce Lin, Hongpeng Jia, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Peng Lu, Congrong Ma, Maria F. Branca, Samantha Weyandt, William B. Fulton, Diego F. Niño, Thomas Prindle Jr., John A. Ozolek, David J. Hackam
Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a severe congenital anomaly of the enteric nervous system (ENS) characterized by functional intestinal obstruction due to a lack of intrinsic innervation in the distal bowel. Distal innervation deficiency results from incomplete colonization of the bowel by enteric neural crest cells (eNCCs), the ENS precursors. Here, we report the generation of a mouse model for HSCR — named Holstein — that contains an untargeted transgenic insertion upstream of the collagen-6α4 (
Rodolphe Soret, Mathilde Mennetrey, Karl F. Bergeron, Anne Dariel, Michel Neunlist, Franziska Grunder, Christophe Faure, David W. Silversides, Nicolas Pilon, for the Ente-Hirsch study group
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an emerging field of regenerative medicine; however, it is often unclear how these cells mediate repair. Here, we investigated the use of MSCs in the treatment of intestinal disease and modeled abnormal repair by creating focal wounds in the colonic mucosa of prostaglandin-deficient mice. These wounds developed into ulcers that infiltrated the outer intestinal wall. We determined that penetrating ulcer formation in this model resulted from increased hypoxia and smooth muscle wall necrosis. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) stimulated VEGF-dependent angiogenesis to prevent penetrating ulcers. Treatment of mucosally injured WT mice with a VEGFR inhibitor resulted in the development of penetrating ulcers, further demonstrating that VEGF is critical for mucosal repair. We next used this model to address the role of transplanted colonic MSCs (cMSCs) in intestinal repair. Compared with intravenously injected cMSCs, mucosally injected cMSCs more effectively prevented the development of penetrating ulcers, as they were more efficiently recruited to colonic wounds. Importantly, mucosally injected cMSCs stimulated angiogenesis in a VEGF-dependent manner. Together, our results reveal that penetrating ulcer formation results from a reduction of local angiogenesis and targeted injection of MSCs can optimize transplantation therapy. Moreover, local MSC injection has potential for treating diseases with features of abnormal angiogenesis and repair.
Nicholas A. Manieri, Madison R. Mack, Molly D. Himmelrich, Daniel L. Worthley, Elaine M. Hanson, Lars Eckmann, Timothy C. Wang, Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck
Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota can be altered to ameliorate or prevent disease states, and engineering the gut microbiota to therapeutically modulate host metabolism is an emerging goal of microbiome research. In the intestine, bacterial urease converts host-derived urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, contributing to hyperammonemia-associated neurotoxicity and encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Here, we engineered murine gut microbiota to reduce urease activity. Animals were depleted of their preexisting gut microbiota and then inoculated with altered Schaedler flora (ASF), a defined consortium of 8 bacteria with minimal urease gene content. This protocol resulted in establishment of a persistent new community that promoted a long-term reduction in fecal urease activity and ammonia production. Moreover, in a murine model of hepatic injury, ASF transplantation was associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. These results provide proof of concept that inoculation of a prepared host with a defined gut microbiota can lead to durable metabolic changes with therapeutic utility.
Ting-Chin David Shen, Lindsey Albenberg, Kyle Bittinger, Christel Chehoud, Ying-Yu Chen, Colleen A. Judge, Lillian Chau, Josephine Ni, Michael Sheng, Andrew Lin, Benjamin J. Wilkins, Elizabeth L. Buza, James D. Lewis, Yevgeny Daikhin, Ilana Nissim, Marc Yudkoff, Frederic D. Bushman, Gary D. Wu
Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett’s intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell–specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE.
Ming Jiang, Wei-Yao Ku, Zhongren Zhou, Evan S. Dellon, Gary W. Falk, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Mei-Lun Wang, Kuancan Liu, Jun Wang, David A. Katzka, Xiaopeng Lan, Jeffrey H. Peters, Jianwen Que